Kamis, 27 Oktober 2016

ma hu qalam rasas?

qalam rasas hu alqurtasiat walllawhat alty tamm 'iijrawuha fi al'asl min aljirafit alnnaqi (elaa sabil almthal Staedtler Pensil Terbaik Untuk Anak). tatimm alkitabat ean tariq kashat aljarafit ealaa wasayil al'iielam. wamae dhilik, aljarafit alnnaqi tamil 'iilaa kasr bishwlt, llinat jaddaan, mimma 'aththar alqadhrat eindama farrak wasayil al'iielam mae yadiik, walhusul ealaa 'aydikum alqudhrat eindama eaqd. li'annah baed dhlk khalaq mazij min aljarafit mae alttin ldhlk 'ann takwin 'akthar sueawbat. waealawat ealaa dhalik, hu ailtifaf takwin alkhalit mae alwaraq 'aw alkhashb.

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bada aistikhdam alrrasas waljarafiit fi alyunan alqadimati. kla 'iieta' tathir khutut rimaditi, aljarafiat alrghm mn 'ann 'akthar qalilanaan alssuda'. wanadiraan ma tustakhdam aljirafiat hatta waqt lahiq fi 1564 wajad 'annaha tahtawi ealaa kammiat kabirat min aljirafit alnnaqi fi burudil wahu wad fi mintaqat buhayrat fi shamal ainjiltra. ela alrghm mn 'annah yushbih alfahm walmaeadin la ymkn 'an tahraqa, wa'annah tarak sawda' lamieat, wa'iizalatiha bshwlt ealaa sath alkitabati. fi hadha alwaqt aljarafiat almadaa la yazal alkhult baynah walqisdir walrrasas wagharafiat, wahadha yaeni "mthil alrrasasa" nzra lilttabieat nafsiha taqriba. wabialttali la yazal yustakhdam alrrasas qalam rasas almadaa (rsass qalam alrrasasa) alyawma. li'ann nasij alzzitiata, qate malfufatan fi jild alghanm 'aw qate saghirat min alqisdir berbentuktongkat damadat bihabil. la 'ahad yaerif man aldhy kan 'awwal fikrat lidamj alrrasas al'aswad fi hawiat khashabiati, walakun fi eam 1560, wa'aqlam alrrasas albadayiyat wasalat 'iilaa alqarrat al'uwrubbiat.
baed dhlk biwaqt qasir, tamm aistikhraj alrrasas watasdiriha 'iilaa talbiat matalib alfannaniini, wafi alqarn al17, wayumkin 'an yuqal qad austukhdimat alrrasas fi kl makanin. fi nfs alwaqt, wasinae qalam rasas jarabat alrrasas al'aswad li'iintaj 'adat alkitabat bishakl 'afdal. naqiat waistikhraj bshwlt walrrasas min buurudil 'an yakun alhadaf min alllusus walmusawwiqin al'aswad. lilttaghallub ealaa dhalika, 'asdar albarlaman albritani qanun eam 1752 aldhy yanuss ealaa 'ann ymkn 'an tuaddi alllas sijn 'aw nafy 'iilaa mustaemarat jazayiyatin.
walakun fi 1779, alkimiayiy karl jurj sakil bahath wakhalisat 'iilaa 'ann aljarafiat ladayh alkthyr min alkhasayis alkimiayiyat almukhtalifat mae alrrasas. aljirafiat alkarbun alnnaqi alttarkib aljaziyiy lileata'a. wa'akhiraan fi eam 1789, aljuyulujiiyn 'almania, waqaddam 'iibrahim G. firnir aljirafit alaisma, wahi mushtaqat min alkalimat alyunaniat graphein, wahu ma yaeni alkitabat. wahakadha, fa'inn muhtawiat qalam rasas badalaan min alqasdir.
lisunawat eadidat aljarafit al'iinjliziat yuhshar lisinaeat qalam rasas li'annaha kanat naqiatan bma yakfi liaistikhdamiha dun mazid min almuealijati. li'ann algharafiat al'uwrubbi kan 'aqall shana walmusnaeayn qalam rasas hunak jurabat mae turuq litahsin rasas qalam alrrasas. almuhandis alfaransi naykwla jak kunti mukhtalitat aljarafit mashuq mae alttiini, watashkil alkhalit fi aleasy, waharaqah fi almawqid. min khilal taghyir nisbat aljirafit 'iilaa alttin, wakan qadiraan ealaa jaeal alkhuyut alty tantajuha zilal mukhtalifat min al'aswad aleamaliat almustakhdamat hatta alana.
fi alqarn al19, sinaeat 'aqlam alrrasas 'iilaa eamal kabir. tamm aleuthur ealaa algharafit fi aledyd min al'amakini, bima fi dhalik sibyria, 'almania, wayusamaa alan jumhuriat alttashiik. fi 'almania wamin thamm fi alwilayat almutahaddati, aiftitah eadad min almasaniei. almuykanat wa'asear al'iintaj alddakhm 'iilaa 'asfal, wafi bidayat alqarn 20th, wahatta 'atfal almadaris biaistikhdam qalam rasas.
aljarafit fi albidayat qalam rasas min waraq alttaghlif daewaa tamazzuq haynaha. walakunn fi waqt lahiq wajadat tariqat 'akthar eamaliat wafaealatan litaghtiat qadib aljarafit kamil mae athnyn min 'alwah khashabiat ditoreh litawfir makan lilqadib aljirafiit thumm wadaeat maea.
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